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The Great Pyramid’s Subterranean Chamber Hydraulic Pulse Generator and Water Pump

The Great Pyramid’s Subterranean Chamber Hydraulic Pulse Generator and Water Pump

John Cadman

(This article has many pictures.  If all fail to load then hit refresh on your browser)

Great Pyramid Giza water pump

Pumping and pulsing model of the subterranean section of the Great Pyramid.



Youtube vid (3 parts) covering most of this info

Submit or promote on Mythbusters or (?) appropriate avenues!


Video from September 19, 2009 showing pump running and some observations



The following article is about the subterranean section of the Great Pyramid.  The whole pyramid can be removed and the pump mechanism will still be present.  It is a very simple yet effective device.  If I'm right about the ancients having built this device then they were geniuses.  If I'm wrong about them building the device then I'm certainly willing to take credit for this marvelous machine.  Either way, we thought we'd share this research with our Black Russian Terrier friends as well as alternate researchers.  All we ask is that you enter with an open mind and let the facts and engineering principles tell the story.

This research has been published in Dr. John DeSalvo's book, "The Complete Pyramid Sourcebook" and featured in AtlantisRising issue #56 as presented by Richard Noone.  It will be featured in an upcoming book by Edward Malkowski.

Do you know what 0.0001" looks like?  For anybody with working knowledge of precision manufacture I strongly suggest reading Chris Dunn's article about advanced machining (Serapeum) and Giza plateau in ancient Egypt.  Stephen Mehler has an article about machined artifacts with reference to a previous civilization.  Even if you don't understand precision production, read the articles. It is based upon real world machining principles, specifications and tolerances.  Did they really make those optical-precision granite artifacts with beating stones?  (The "beating stones" is not an exaggeration)  If you read the article and really "get" the implications - the full implications - then you will know that there is much more to history than what we've been exposed to.  How do you create a perfectly square corner when you can not even make the precision square used to verify the angle?  Even if you had a precision square could you produce precision pieces?   Which civilization really made them?  Ancient history has holes and this is the "smoking gun".

The machine that I'm proposing is not out of the realm of what the pyramid builders have shown that they could produce.  They were expert tunnelers.  There's even a Giza plateau water tunnel mapping project being undertaken.  They could easily produce the two moving parts of the machine.  I'm just glad that I don't have to suggest that they could produce the precision granite artifacts of the Serapeum with beating stones and copper chisels!

Giza plateau with Nile river 

FIGURE 1. Giza Plateau Layout

The causeway from the Great Pyramid can be seen leading down to the location of the ancient Nile River. The causeway was a hollow structure nearly half a mile long. Why did they need this hollow  structure? The retaining wall is an accepted part of the pyramid structure. This retaining wall would have been as high as  the entrance door. What did it need to retain?



Egyptology has been polarized into two primary factions. The Orthodox camp follows the standard version of history that claims the Great Pyramid was utilized as a tomb by Khufu5. Yet, no one has ever foundany signs of a non-intrusive burial within any pyramid2,3,5. The only sign that the Great Pyramid was even related to Khufu is a glyph in an upper chamber that was most likely forged by Perring3. They view the entire subterranean section as a mistake and believe the 1,500 square foot subterranean chamber was unfinished and left abandoned5.

The oral indigenous teachings state:

The pyramids were never intended as tombs.3

The pyramids are some type of sonic machines.3

The pyramids were in existence long before the time of the Pharaohs.3

Dynastic Egyptians merely lived in the presence of the pyramids just as we do today.3

Did these buildings actually come from an earlier time of a more advanced civilization?

Even Dr. Robert Schoch's geological evidence points to a much earlier age for the pyramid builders - at least 5,000 years before the Orthodox dating.  He shows extreme rain weathering of the Sphinx enclosure that shows that it was built at a much wetter period of Egyptian history which was at the end of the ice-age.  The dynastic Egyptians don't even claim to have built the Sphinx but merely repaired it - just as we do today.

The use of the Great Pyramid's subterranean layout produces the best and most advanced hydraulic ram pump ever built. Is this mere coincidence that these parts can be used in some type of simple, yet sophisticated, machine? What physical evidence supports this claim? We do find extensive water erosion patterns that exactly match the water flows of the machine.

Giza plateau topographical

FIGURE 2. Giza Plateau Topographical - water everywhere.

The Nile River was a major factor for the Giza plateau design. Just as important as the Nile was the Western Nile (Ur Nile). The Western Nile was at a higher elevation and gravity fed many miles of underground aqueducts3 . One function of the aqueducts was to provide water to the Great Pyramid’s moat.


The original theory for the pump mechanism was the result of block moving and elevating techniques.  By using water and water locks, any weight of object can be moved to any height effortlessly - hence a technique for moving a couple million multi-ton blocks to 400+ feet.  One person can move a multi-ton block easily.

Edward Kunkel graphic

Water locks to elevate blocks - Edward Kunkel's vision from "The Pharaoh's Pump"

Edward Kunkel graphic


Before any theorizing about the Great Pyramid, a little pump background is helpful. Invented in the 1700’s, hydraulic ram pumps are a primitive but highly effective machine. These simple pumps incorporate only two moving parts. Used extensively around the world until the invention of the electric water pump, these pumps have nearly been forgotten. The basic design utilizes the force of falling water to elevate part of the water (see Figure 3). Water flows down the drive pipe into the compression chamber. Water escapes from the waste valve until the water‘s velocity forces the valve shut. When the valve shuts, the water stops flowing instantaneously and causes the water to compress resulting in a compression wave, or shock wave, to emanate from the valve area. In the drive line, the water reverses direction until the shock wave reaches air and returns down the pipe. In the output line, a high pressure surge passes through the check valve. This surge is at least fifty times (3,360 psi at Giza) the static water pressure of the compression chamber. When the compression wave leaves the compression chamber, a low pressure situation exists. The low pressure is equal and opposite to the compression wave. This immediately re-opens the waste valve. The stand pipe is a shortcut for the compression wave to reach air. Once the compression wave reaches air, a wave returns down the stand pipe and starts the water flow back into the compression chamber. The stand pipe, usually twice the diameter of the drive pipe, allows for the highest possible cycling rate.

Most hydraulic ram pumps are free standing, with the majority of parts being exposed above ground (see Figure 3). A specialized application is to have the lines underground (see Figure 4). The stand pipe needs to exit to air, and the waste valve (wastegate) also needs an exit. To facilitate the waste valve output, a line may be extended from the compression chamber to an appropriate location. This allows for the bulk of the pump lines to be centrally located. This layout has an interesting side effect - the compression wave becomes focused in the line leading to the compression chamber and this focused compression wave transmits a pulse through the compression chamber’s ceiling.

hydraulic ram pump

FIGURE 3. Standard Hydraulic Ram Pump - proven technology

The basic hydraulic ram pump has water running from the elevated water source to the compression chamber. A valve in the compression chamber allows water to flow  out until the velocity forces the valve shut. The valve shutting causes a high pressure spike that forces water past the check valve and through the output line. The waste valve reopens and once again allows water to flow  down the pipe. The stand pipe affects the cycle rate by creating a shortcut for the reverse surge.

Cadman hydraulic ram pump

FIGURE 4. Specialized Application Hydraulic Ram Pump - Inspired by the subterranean section of the Great Pyramid.

Building an underground ram pump requires lengthening of the compression chamber to allow for waste water output. This  is the layout of the functioning machine for  this article.   lt could not be any simpler or more effective. Design: John Cadman  Patent pending

FIGURE 5. Confirmed Existence at Giza

Before theorizing about missing parts, it is important to view what is known to have existed. Although the retaining wall (1) no longer is in existence, it is an accepted part of the complex. The retaining walls and casing stones were dismantled for building materials for Cairo.

Great Pyramid Giza hi-res graphic

This is great picture of the Great Pyramid - Click to enlarge!


The subterranean chamber (6) is the largest and most unusual room of the Great Pyramid. This odd looking room is located 100’ below the base of the Great Pyramid and carved from the solid limestone bedrock of the plateau (see Figure 5). This large room is 27’ north to south and 56’ east to west. The entrance is near the floor at the northeast corner. The eastern half of the room averages 11’ to 13’ in height. The western half of the room is a 5 ½’ high step (see Figure 6). The step has a channel in the middle that leads to the western wall. This channel, the “step channel“, starts at floor level but tapers as it heads towards the back wall. On top of the step are two fins that run from the front of the step to the back wall. A third fin starts ½ way back on the step. All of the fins run east to west and reach up near the ceiling. On the main floor there is a {6’} wide square pit set diagonally some 5’ from the eastern wall. This pit drops 5 ½‘ to a step where the pit narrows to 4’ square. The total depth of the pit is about 11’ although Cavigula had drilled down another 30’ in the 1800’s.5 In the southeastern corner is the entrance to a tunnel that measures 29” by 31”. Dubbed the ”dead end” shaft, this tunnel runs 57’ due south where it ends in a vertical wall.

The subterranean chamber has confounded most pyramid researchers. The Orthodox camp essentially gave up trying to explain this room. They came up with the idea that the whole subterranean section was a giant mistake. Edward Kunkel, Chris Dunn, and Joe Parr gave alternate views. Kunkel was partially correct when he recognized that the chamber was part of a modified hydraulic ram pump. Dunn recognized that the chamber must be the location for the source of a pulse direct towards King’s chamber. Parr recognized that it was the location of a sound transmission.

Great Pyramid Sub Chamber

FIGURE 6. Views of the Subterranean Chamber

It is difficult to describe the largest room of the Great Pyramid. Upon entering the room we are faced with a pit tunneled in the middle of the floor. One half of the room is a large step with odd fins. The handrail around the pit was added in modern times to prevent visitors from falling into it. Photos: Guardian’s Giza, Edgar Brothers, GPG-RA

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 7. The Subterranean Chamber Layout

Although these drawings were a primary source for the models, they have errors in the finned area. The fin errors were a result of the fins  being filled with rubble when the sketch was done. The bottom drawing shows  the location of the small rec ess that corresponds to the best location for an air or gas removal line.  It should be noted that Perring excavated the pit another 36 feet back in the 1800's, but that has since been filled back in.


The pyramid had a tall masonry enclosure that was higher than the pyramid’s entrance (1) (see Figure 8). Water was flooded between this masonry wall and the pyramid via tunnels from the ancient Lake Moeris (2). Lake Moeris and the Western Nile were at higher elevations and allowed for water tunnels to gravity feed to this pyramid’s moat1,3 (see Figure 2). One of the water tunnels existed as a “well” in front of the pyramid’s entrance. This well has since been covered with pavement1. As the moat filled, water flooded the entrance and ran down the descending passage (3) into the subterranean chamber (6).

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 8. The Basic Passage Layout

The pump assembly incorporates the descending passage (3), subterranean chamber (6), the “dead end” shaft (7), the pit (8), the well shaft (4) and grotto (5). To complete the basic hydraulic ram, two blocked tunnels need to be cleared. At the end of the “dead end” shaft exists a plane surface that correlates to the back side of a check-valve. The pit hasn’t been completely excavated to expose the horizontal shaft. In the running model the water in the well shaft pulsed at the grotto height even though this is below  moat elevation.

Well shaft

FIGURE 8a.The Well as depicted and described by Colonel Howard Vyse from Richar Noone's book.

The well in front of the entrance would have been connected to the ancient Lake Moeris which was at a higher elevation than the Great Pyramid.  Lake Moeris was the size of lake Erie.  Water would have gravity fed from the lake to the walled enclosure.

At the lower end of the descending passage a tunnel leads up towards the lowest of the two upper rooms. This shaft is known as the “well shaft” (4). Until the late 1800’s most of the descending passage, the lower part of the well shaft and the subterranean chamber had been buried for a thousand years2. Indigenous teachings state emphatically that there is still a buried tunnel that leads from the bottom of the subterranean chamber’s pit (8) (see Figure 8) to the location of the ancient Nile River3. This tunnel was a drain that had a mechanical element at its end. This mechanical element is possibly a sliding stone plug, which opened and closed causing a pulsing action (see Figure 24). The “dead end” shaft (7) terminates 57’ past it’s entrance. It is my hypothesis that the termination is the back face of a closed check valve, and a tunnel exists beyond (see inset Figure 8).

To maintain consistent pulse timing, the pyramid’s moat requires a specific static level. To ensure this, the moat is provided more water than is consumed. The excess water was removed by the causeway running down to the Nile River (see Figure 1).


[Water Height]   [Waste Gate]   [Pump Starts]   [High OutPut]   [Pyramid Peaks]   [Valves Pulses]   [Mid-Point]

(To Select: Right Click . . . "Save Target As . . .")


Model construction started in June of 1999. I was very surprised to find that every source of subterranean chamber dimensions and drawings had omissions or errors. This room has been bypassed when compared to the upper chambers that have been measured and documented extensively. This may have been the result of the Greco-Roman tradition of the pyramid being a tomb and the subterranean chamber being an unfinished room3. A model was built drawing upon the Edgar brothers’ sketches8 (see Figure 7), Flinders Petries’ dimesions9, Edward Kunkel’s drawings1, and every photograph I could find. Photographs played a crucial part in verifying details on various drawings. A 1:48 scale was decided upon. This scale utilizes ¾”, 1” and 1 ¼” pipes. The subterranean chamber is 8” x 13” x 5”. By August of 1999 I had built a model as described by Kunkel. The first model leaked, cracked and, worst of all, didn’t run.

With too many hours invested to quit, the journey continued. The second model incorporated something that wasn’t in Kunkel’s design -.a line that went out through the bottom of the pit shaft. During the fall of 1999 I believed that the pit’s line was the pressurized output. I half heartedly continued model construction with the hopes that something would become of it (see Figure 9). To maintain focus, pictures of models 1 and 2 are not included. Four months passed and then in the last hours of the millennium (New Year’s Eve 1999), I had a vision of the correct layout. With renewed excitement, model construction continued (see Figure 10). Within four months (April 3, 2000) I had constructed a working model that started running on the first try! (see Figure 11)

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator  Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 9. Model No. 3 Casting and Ceiling Installation

(Left) The model has  been removed from the rubber mold, and it is ready for entrance and exit fittings. (Right) The ceiling block has been sealed by saturating it with clear epoxy resin. The model is then glued to the block with the a slightly pliable epoxy to absorb shock without cracking. The whole model is  then covered with a mix of the two epoxies, fiberglass, and steel reinforcements.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 10. The Model Preparing for Cement

The model before cement was added. The pit shaft was angled west then south in this model for strength. At Giza the shaft goes due southeast. The model uses twin 45’s instead of single 90’s to mimic the 45 degree reflective elbow of Giza. (Right) The horizontal passage into the subterranean chamber model utilizes square interior to mimic the tunnel at Giza.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator    Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator   Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 11. The First Working Model - April 3, 2000 - Runs  on the very first try!

(Left) Originally believing that water was pumped to the King’s chamber, the model is shown pumping to that elevation. (Center) A barrel was used for the reservoir, but filling limitations forced moving the model to a seasonal creek with a pond utilized for the reservoir. (Right) The model is housed within reinforced cement, while at Giza, the subterranean chamber is housed under 100 feet of bedrock. In either case, the room is situated to withstand shockwaves.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator    Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 12. The Wastegate and the Bypass

(Left) The original wastegate was vertical with a variable weight utilized to reopen the valve. Later, the valve became horizontal with no weight, utilizing only the rarefaction wave to reopen valve. The vortex of the subterranean chamber would spin the valve 30’ down the line. (Right) To compare the pumping unit with the subterranean chamber in place versus without, a straight pipe with "tee" was fit in place where the room would have been. This resulted in a much simpler assembly that still pumped. There were two main differences. There was a large reverse pulse at the reservoir and the output flow was more erratic. This demonstrated how  the subterranean chamber absorbed much of the reverse pulse and allowed for a continuous output.


No amount of theorizing can replace the solid answers presented by a working model. The running model confirms that the output was through the “dead end” shaft. Also confirmed is the existence of a tunnel out through the bottom of the subterranean chamber’s pit that lead down to the Nile River. The running model is capable of elevating water to any part of a would be pyramid model and can be run without the pyramid structure. If the entire pyramid can be removed and the pump still functions then why put forth the tremendous effort of pyramid construction? This points to the idea that the subterranean assembly is a part of a larger machine. This machine may well have been a machine as described by Chris Dunn in his book. The subterranean chamber is a complex assembly with no immediately obvious reason for the complexity. For a control group, the subterranean chamber assembly was removed and a straight pipe with a “tee” was installed (see Figure 12). The pump still functions with similar output. The primary differences being the presence of a large reverse pulse at the reservoir and the output flow was more erratic. I was surprised to discover that the subterranean chamber changed most of the fluid‘s shock wave into a vertical compression wave in the cement assembly. In his book, Chris Dunn states, “The equipment that provided the priming pulses was most likely housed in the Subterranean Pit.“2 (pg 220) The equipment may well have been water-hammer and from the pit it came.


The subterranean chamber utilized two distinctly different forces: Fluid dynamics and acoustics. I constructed two separate models to examine each force in detail.

Acoustic Model: The acoustic model is the original pump model (model #3) that has been modified over the years (see Figures 11, 21). To overcome water pressure and hydraulic hammer spikes, the model is built from fiberglass and epoxy. It was then placed within a mold that was filled with rebar and cement. This 500 pound model was placed alongside a seasonal creek with a small pond acting as the moat or reservoir. The pump model is dubbed the “pulse generator” model because of the powerful pulses generated. The pulses can be felt through the ground at 20 feet and can be heard at 100 feet. The "pulse generator" model also pumps water to various elevations. It seems possible that the subterranean chamber can shake the whole pyramid and can elevate water to any part of the Giza plateau - pyramid peaks included.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 13. The Fluid Dynamics and Acoustical Dynamics

The sound wave striking the perpendicular surface reflects the majority of the pulse back towards the source. When the fluid jet strikes a perpendicular surface, it spreads in a 360° pattern perpendicular to the jet. The subterranean chamber incorporates fluid dynamics and acoustical dynamics.

Fluid dynamics model: This model (model #4) has a glass top and glass eastern wall, which enables viewing of the water flow. I fitted it with 25 individual ink injection locations (see Figure 15). The various water flows can be demonstrated by varying which ink injection ports are open.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 14. Westward Views of the Fluid Dynamics Model

Looking towards the step gives a perspective of the fin arrangement. (Upper Right) Looking through glass  eastern wall with pit in foreground. (Lower right) Glass eastern wall can be seen as well as glass topped ante chamber.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator  Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 15. The Fluid Dynamics  Model with Glass Top and Ink Jets

The glass  topped fluid dynamics model showing 10 of the 25 ink injection valves. By placing the injectors at strategic locations, the exact fluid dynamics were able to be established. Running the glass topped model in the pump/pulse mode causes the glass to immediately shatter. (Right) Ink being injected into seven ports on the step show  the precision and beauty of the fluid design.

The water flows within the subterranean chamber are complex and precise. The dynamics are on par with that of computerized storm analysis: somewhere between hurricane dynamics and tornado dynamics (seeFigures 17, 18, 19, 20). While compiling the graphics for these flows it became apparent how much water erosion is actually within this room (see Figures 16, 17, 20). The best signs of erosion are out of tourists reach on the ceiling. The erosion not only shows that the machine was in operation but also allows for calculation of operational time frame. The erosion patterns confirm the existence of a tunnel from the pit to the Nile.


FIGURE 16. Water Erosion in Subterranean Chamber

(Left) The antechamber before the subterranean chamber shows significant erosion on the ceiling where trapped air allowed turbulence and splashing of water. Photo: Edgar Brothers (Right) Reconstruction of a fin shows extent of erosion in finned area. The builders always used angular sufaces as opposed to the curved surfaces that are present in the fins. The fin on the right shows more extensive damage. Photo:

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator  Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 17. Looking into Subterranean Chamber from the Antechamber

(Left) The entrance jet (yellow) shoots from the horizontal passage across the subterranean chamber to the entrance of the “dead end“ shaft (red X). The “dead end” shaft is a water output. The left wall is continuous from the antechamber through to the “dead end“ shaft and functions as a guide. As part of the jet strikes the far wall, it is deflected up and to the right (orange). (Right) The entrance jet is shown shooting across  the room. Because the pit is offset from the far wall, the ceiling-to-pit flow  misses the jet. Extensive erosion on the ceiling exactly matches the flow  patterns. The area at the top of the picture appears to be cavitation damage from the extreme low  pressure rarefaction wave. Photo: Edgar Brothers

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator  Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 18. Fluid Dynamics in the South Eastern Quadrant

(Left) Looking down on model shows ink being injected in entrance jet. The entrance jet shoots  across the room where part of the flow  is  deflected by the far wall. (Right) Ink is  being injected in six ports around the “dead end” shaft. The yellow  entrance jet shoots  towards the entrance of the high pressure output. The orange arrows  show the deflection around the “dead end” shaft. Notice how  there is a flow from the ceiling down into the pit. The pit is offset from the eastern wall to prevent this  ceiling-to-pit flow from interfering with the yellow  entrance jet. This completely explains  the pit’s offset from the wall. The sloped area at the top of the pit is erosion caused by a major flow  into the pit. At Giza, this  area has been filled with bricks to accommodate hand-rails.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator  Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 19. Fluid Dynamics at the Step Channel

(Left) Looking down on the step face as well as the pit, the ink shows the flow  running along the face of the step. As it arrives at the step channel this flow  is diverted. Erosion on the floor exactly matches this pattern. The pit’s  diagonal offset is exactly aligned with the tunnel to the Nile. (Right) Ink is injected into the step channel showing flow  direction and that it diverts the face flow.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 20. Fluid Dynamics in the Western Sector

In the subterranean chamber looking at the step and the primary flows. There exists significant erosion on the floor, walls, and ceiling that exactly matches these flows. Designing this room for the complex three dimensional fluid dynamics would have been a monumental task, not to mention the simultaneous  acoustic dynamics. Photo: Santha Faiia



The well shaft and grotto (see Figure 5) have long been debated regarding their functions and when they were added. Some believe that the tunnel was used as an escape or rescue route5. Others believe that it was added for an inspection shaft for possible earthquake damage5. Considering that the shaft starts near the bottom of the descending passage and targets a specific location some 170 feet away then it is reasonable to assume that whoever dug the tunnel had the original plans. I believe that the well shaft was bored by the original builders and that it was part of the original design.

In a standard hydraulic ram pump (see Figure 3), the well shaft is analogous to the stand pipe. A stand pipe is utilized to maximize the potential pulse rate by creating a short cut for the reverse pulse to reach air and return back down to the compression chamber assembly. Stand pipes are normally two times the diameter of the drive pipe. Yet, at Giza we find the stand pipe to be 25% smaller than the drive pipe. In the model this has the interesting effect of lowering the elevation of the pulsing water to below the water height of the reservoir. The specific elevation correlates to the height of the grotto (see Figure 8). The grotto serves as a reservoir to allow for stabilization and regulation of the reverse pulse (see Figure 21). There exists a block of granite within the grotto that fits within the pipe that I believe was some type of choke or regulator.

Edward Kunkel theorized that water was pumped up through the well shaft and out through the King’s chamber air shafts. He believed that the well shaft was an area of increased pressure. But what we find is that the water in the well shaft is below the moat elevation and therefore is a reduced pressure zone.  This observation destroys a large part of Kunkel‘s theory.

Effects of well shaft:

Maximizes the pulse rate of the pump assembly.

Allows for drainage of fluids entering the Queen’s chamber.

Reduces the reverse surge out of the descending passage.

Reduces pumping efficiency.

Reduces pulse intensity.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator  Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 21. Running Model with Well Shaft Open

(Left) The “pulse generator” model cemented in place and running. Water is being output through the ”dead end” shaft line. The well shaft is the second vertical line and has a clear plastic top where the grotto is located. The clear grotto allows viewing of the reverse pulse height. The descending passage is the brown and white pipe. (Right) The well shaft is in operation because the valve is  open. The output through the “dead end” shaft has decreased by 68% as compared to when the well shaft is closed.

On the model, the well shaft increases the pulse rate from 60 beats per minute to 80 beats per minute. To gain perspective on the well shaft’s effect on the pump’s efficiency, four pump configurations are compared. Two possible pump outputs demonstrate a circulating pump and an elevating pump.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

In the circulating pump configuration, the well shaft reduces the efficiency by 29%. More significantly, in the elevating pump configuration, the well shaft reduces the efficiency by 68%. If the well shaft was incorporated in the original pyramid design, as I believe it was, then the pumping efficiency was not of prime importance. If the pumping efficiency was not of prime importance then the pump function is not the most important function. This raises the question, “What was the primary function of the subterranean machine”?


Anyone that has experienced the running model all come away saying that the pump function is secondary to the pulse generation.  The intense pulse is directed towards the King’s chamber causing it to resonate (see Figure 22).  The King's chamber is made of rose quartz granite which is 55% quartz crystal (possible piezo effect?).  Why resonate the King's chamber?  Chris Dunn, Joe Parr and others have theories.  You do the research and make your own decision.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 22. The Subterranean Chamber’s Compression Wave

The primary function of the subterranean section is to provide pulse to resonate the free standing King's chamber.

The King’s chamber has design features of a resonating chamber. The granite walls are freestanding and isolated from the surrounding limestone masonry. This allows the room to freely resonate. The Orthodox camp labels the five layers of granite ceiling beams as stress relieving. But Chris Dunn demonstrates that these extra layers add nothing to the strength of the ceiling. A much simpler design similar to the lower Queen’s chamber could have been utilized (see Figure 23). Rather, the extra layers of granite beams are resonating chambers utilized to amplify the rooms resonance.2 Extensive sound testing has been done within this room by Thomas Danley2, John Reid10, Chris Dunn2, and others.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 23. Simpler King’s Chamber Design - after Chris Dunn

The five layers of granite beams above the King’s chamber have been called “stress relieving” chambers, yet they relieve no stresses. (Inset) A much simpler design similar to the Queen’s chamber has equal strength. Did the builders forget structural design as they moved higher up into the building? Did they enjoy cutting and moving 70 ton granite ceiling beams?



There needs to be a simple means to compensate for variance in water temperature and atmospheric pressure since these factors change the velocity of the compression wave. The “dead end” shaft pumps water (see Figure 24), but mainly allowed for fine-tuning the compression wave timing and frequency. Adjusting backpressure by adjusting a gate valve at the end of the shaft allows for changes in timing. Testing has shown that the pulse rate can be varied by at least 30 percent. Adjusting the backpressure {67psi to 3360psi at Giza} also changes the water’s density thereby changing the compression wave’s velocity and frequency. This easily allows for fine-tuning of the lower assembly to create a standing wave in the subterranean chamber and wastegate line.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 24. Testing Multiple Options

One of many pipe layouts used to find the best possible configuration for what is under the Giza plateau. Multiple valves were used to verify or negate possibilities, and this layout had 256 binary possibilities. A much simpler layout proved to be the best. To prevent damage to model's “dead end” shaft output, the pipe is stabilized by running it through a cement barrier and then doubling back towards the model. This double back layout is for convenience and does not reflect the Giza layout.


Indigenous teachings speak of a tunnel from the area of the Sphinx leading to the Great Pyramid.3 This four foot square tunnel leads from the bottom of the pit to the area just east of the Sphinx. This tunnel did not pass under the Sphinx but exited about 100' in front of the Sphinx temple. It dumped into the ancient Nile River.

Edward Kunkel was also taught the indigenous teachings that a tunnel existed from the Sphinx area that led to the Great pyramid.1 However, he failed to make the connection of the tunnel to the subterranean chamber’s pit. Kunkel believed that the pit had a permanent bottom and that no tunnel exited it. He believed that the pit‘s only function was to form a whirlpool. He also believed that the wastegate was connected to the “dead end“ shaft and exited in the boat pit at the level of the base of the pyramid. This is why Kunkel was unable to make a working model. Although it is tragic that Kunkel was given such an incomplete vision, his part of the vision has been carried forth. I’m still amazed by his original vision.


The wastegate is horizontal and is essentially a reversed check valve (see Figure 25). It consisted of one rectangular moving block within a passage. This valve is probably 4’x4’x6’, granite or basalt, and may have been a tuned box (sarcophagus). The valve is closed by the flowing water. This closing of the valve causes a compression wave (shockwave) that is sent up the tunnel11 to the subterranean chamber. Testing has shown that the valve is reopened by the rarefaction wave that immediately follows the compression wave (see Figure 26). The time required for the water hammer shockwave to travel from the valve to the end of the pipe and back, as well as the increase in pressure caused by the shockwave can both be calculated11.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator  Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 25. The Final Wastegate

(Left) Piston striking valve seat stops water flow  instantaneously and causes compression of the water. The compression of the water causes high pressure compression wave and low  pressure rarefaction wave. The low  pressure rarefaction wave reopens the valve. (Right) The submerged horizontal wastegate in action. It runs  better once the valve is submerged.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 26. The Valve and Fluid Motion at Wastegate

Fluid moving down wastegate line starts  valve in motion. Valve accelerates  towards valve seat. Closing valve stops water and causes water to compress. Compression wave and rarefaction wave heads back up the line. Low  pressure rarefaction wave moves valve to open position. No water moves  past valve until pressure wave returns.


There is a 5 point alignment between northwest corner Great Pyramid, subterranean chamber pit, southeast corner GP, southwest corner Q1 pyramid, northeast corner Sphinx temple and an offset temple just north of the Sphinx temple (see Figure 27). The northeast side of the last building should be directly adjacent to the wastegate line {and possibly accesses the wastegate valve}. The wastegate line should exit east of the Sphinx temple’s mid point . . . approximately 100’ east and 30’ below the surface. This is also the location of buried rose quartz granite that was discovered in 1980 by the Egyptian water department12. This granite is not local to this area but came from 500 miles to the south.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 27. The Tunnel Layout

Giza plateau showing relative directions of “dead end” shaft (purple) and “water shaft”. The wastegate line (red) is angled towards the ancient Nile River and exited under water in front of Sphinx Temple. Note angled temple next to Sphinx temple.


The subterranean chamber pit is offset by 45 degrees. This is strictly for acoustical dynamics at the bottom of the pit shaft (presently buried). A plane placed at a 45-degree angle will maintain the unidirectionality and consistency of the compression wave (see Figure 28). Any other type elbow at the bottom of the pit would scatter and diffract the compression wave. To create the standing wave in the wastegate line and subterranean chamber it would be imperative to have the reflective elbow. The pit’s offset is exactly aligned with the tunnel.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator  Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 28. The Pit’s Offset

(Left) The red arrow is aligned with the exit tunnel. The reflective elbow  maintains  the conformity of the compression wave. Not only does the reflective elbow  completely explain the pit’s diagonal offset, but it also confirms  that the compression wave is a major design consideration. The designers  thoroughly understood complex fluid dynamics as well as  complex acoustics. (Right) Red arrow shows direction of tunnel at bottom of the pit. This  Ink injection picture shows  some of the flows in the step area.


The “Water Shaft” is a multiple room structure located under the middle pyramid's causeway (see Figure 27, 29). It took 4 years of continuous pumping to remove the water3. The “dead end” shaft is at the same elevation as the lowest chamber of the “Water Shaft”. In the northwest corner of the lowest room a small tunnel heads towards a possible juncture with the dead end shaft. This may be a mere coincidence but it strongly suggests the existence of a labyrinth of tunnels at this depth.

Nigel Skinner-Simpson has an excellent internet site regarding this shaft13.


FIGURE 29. The “Water Shaft”

Glimpses of the “water shaft” from Nigel Skinner-Simpson’s site.


Indigenous teachings speak of hydrogen coming from the subterranean chamber3. Hydraulic ram pumps are designed to not have gas in the compression chamber. Trapped gasses are compressible and therefore dramatically reduce the shock wave impact. But the subterranean chamber has been designed specifically to retain gas (see Figure 30). What could cause gassing in the subterranean chamber? The rarefaction wave creates an observable negative pressure wave in the wastegate line, resulting in cavitation in the subterranean chamber. Cavitation is the near instantaneous vaporization (gassing) of fluids combined with near instantaneous collapse of a majority of the gas back to liquid form. This violent action results in loud sounds and chipping or flaking of surface materials11. There is chipping on the ceiling that corresponds to cavitation damage (see Figures 17, 20).

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 30. The Subterranean Chamber Gas Collector

(Left) The subterranean chamber at Giza has it’s output line at the bottom of the wall. This design minimizes  gas escaping through the output line. (Right) A better design for automatically removing trapped gas  involves  having the output line at the ceiling. The subterranean chamber was designed to capture gas.

Dissolved limestone existed as an impurity in the water enabling electrolysis. The resonance, compression and cavitation, coupled with rushing water, multiple vortices, water impurities and the electrical nature of limestone would have resulted in gassing in the subterranean chamber. The water, H2O, is split into Hydrogen and Oxygen. Oxygen is readily dissolved into water and is reabsorbed. The hydrogen gas swirls on the ceiling of the subterranean chamber until it is diverted to the line to the Queen’s chamber (see below).


A line from the subterranean chamber to the Queen’s chamber niche (see Figure 32) is the most controversial element of the pump layout. Yet, this line is not a required element for the pulse generator or pump. Not required because the trapped air within the subterranean chamber would be absorbed by the water within a couple of weeks of running. Although this line is not required, it is a logical element for the assembly (see Figure 32).

Evidence to support the existence of the line are:

An anomaly within the subterranean chamber corresponds to a starting point.

A recess filled with rubble in the Queen’s chamber niche corresponds to an ending point.4

Indigenous teachings state hydrogen was produced in the subterranean chamber for utilization in the upper chambers.3

Salt encrustation leading from Queen’s chamber down to subterranean chamber shows consistency of fluid movement.2

The subterranean chamber is designed specifically to trap gas and to funnel the gas to the specific location of the line’s starting point.

FIGURE 31. The Pit Cut in Queen’s Chamber Floor

The niche in the Queen’s chamber extends below  the floor level. Kunkel was emphatic about Perring’s drawings showing the pit extending down further into the floor. Also notice the chamber’s floor is sunken from the horizontal shaft that enters it. This allowed fluid to pool in this room before it exited down the horizontal shaft to the well shaft entrance.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 32. The Gas Line Out of Subterranean Chamber.

A line may have existed (9) between the Subterranean Chamber (6) and the Queen’s chamber (10). This line allowed gas and water to escape the subterranean chamber’s ceiling. The water would pool in the Queen’s chamber and flow  down the horizontal passage floor (11) and drained into the well shaft (4). Any gasses would exit the horizontal passage (11) into the Grand Gallery (12) into the King’s chamber (13) and out the air shafts(14).

The anomaly in the subterranean chamber is a small recess that extends beyond the west wall and extends above the ceiling (see Figure 34). This is the precise location chosen on the model to remove trapped air (see Figures 35). This line was utilized for removal of air and other gases from the initial flooding and later gas accumulation. The water and gas perked into the Queen's chamber. The water would pool in the room and then run down the horizontal passage to the top of the well shaft where it drains. The gas would exit through the air shafts. This allows the pump to be totally self-contained and self-correcting14.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 33. Air Removal from Subterranean Chamber

Originally there was no way to remove air from the subterranean chamber other than to run it long enough to absorb the air into the water. Air absorption would take weeks. A Schraeder valve was added to the model’s ceiling to remove the trapped air.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 34. The Air Removal Line at Giza

The “small recess” is located at the best location to remove air and other gases. This  is  the location that is used on the fluid dynamics model. Notice extensive water erosion. Photo: Edgar brothers.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator  Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 35. The Air Removal Line of the Model

(Left) The model is filling and the air is being removed from the rear line. Notice how the air is automatically funneled to the back quarter of the subterranean chamber by design. (Right) The ‘small recess’ that was added to the model.

The amount of water perked up to the Queen's chamber was restricted by the shaft size, possibly in the range of 6“. A check valve would have been present at the top of the small recess. The backside of the check valve is the ceiling of the small recess. Although it is not clear which gas perked up to the Queen’s chamber niche: air, hydrogen, oxygen or a mixture, the only direction for the gas to escape is up thru the King's chamber airshafts.

Chris Dunn has shown significant evidence to support the idea that hydrogen was created in the Queen’s chamber through mixing of chemicals2. This contradicts hydrogen production in the subterranean chamber with delivery to the Queen’s chamber. What we share in common is that fluids entered into the Queen’s chamber and the fluids pooled there. The room is sunken from the horizontal shaft that enters it (see Figure 31). We also believe that the fluids ran down the horizontal passage to the top of the well shaft where it would drain. This is the only area that has any clash when unifying our works.

Stephen Mehler has proposed that the hydrogen was originally produced by water3. He believes that chemicals were utilized when the water supply diminished. Who is correct? Maybe it’s a bit of both.


The walled enclosure around the Great Pyramid was a moat.

The water supply for the moat provided more water than the Great Pyramid consumed.

The causeway removed the excess water.

The subterranean chamber is not an air compression chamber. (Kunkel)1

The water-saturated subterranean chamber transmits shock waves to the ceiling.

There was an air/gas removal line in the northwest area of the subterranean chamber.

The air/gas removal line is connected to the niche in the Queen's chamber.

The air/gas removal line also perked water into Queen's chamber.

The well shaft functions as water return line from the Queen's chamber.

The well shaft minimizes the reverse pulse in the descending passage.

The grotto functioned as an expansion chamber to limit reverse pulse.

The subterranean chamber's antechamber functioned as an acoustic filter.

There is water output through the “dead end” shaft.

The water output may have been connected to with the "water shaft".

There is a check valve at the end of the ”dead end” shaft.

A gate valve was the fine-tuning mechanism for the standing wave in the wastegate line.

The pit is connected via tunnel to a wastegate in front of the "Sphinx Temple" (Nile River).



Hopefully the reader will come away from the viewing of the subterranean chamber pictures with the solid impression that there exists significant water erosion. This physical evidence can only have been created by the tunnel layout as described. The physical evidence destroys the Orthodox view that the subterranean chamber was left as an unfinished and abandoned room. Some readers will agree with the pump but deny the pulse generator aspect. Others agree with the pulse generator but deny the pump. Either way, most will agree that there was a machine under the Great Pyramid. May all of us see that the tomb theory has little to do with reality.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 36. Erosion Dents

Water erosion paths are readily evident. Photo: Santha Faiia


Each of us is given a piece to some grand puzzle of life. I was given the opportunity to demonstrate that there was a water machine under the Great Pyramid and the water machine produced the sonic force to resonate the King's chamber. Edward Kunkel1 was given a piece with his vision of the Great Pyramid being a water machine – a water pump. Chris Dunn2 was given a piece with his vision of the Great Pyramid being a sonic machine. Stephen Mehler3 was blessed by receiving indigenous teachings. His teacher, Hakim, related that the Great Pyramid was a sonic machine that ran on water.

Edward Kunkel tried to incorporate all of the rooms and shafts into the water machine. This was a grievous mistake that haunted him. Chris Dunn’s work focused primarily on the upper rooms and shafts. He described he subterranean chamber as having housed the equipment that drove the pyramid to resonance. Hakim taught Stephen the existence of miles of water tunnels that connected all of the ancient civilization.

My research is the working proof that binds these visionaries. It includes the first and only working model of the subterranean section of the Great Pyramid. The whole pyramid can be removed and the subterranean section still runs. Because the model is mainly the subterranean section of the pyramid, it raises as many questions as it answers.


From the beginning there was a reason for the model construction. My wife and I moved onto property that was off the power grid. Alternate energy solutions were needed to make the homestead functional. A gas generator and solar panels supply the power until a wind generator is installed. We needed to transfer water from a small pond to our garden some 300’ away (see Figure 37). There is 2’ of drop from the pond to the garden. Gravity feed was prohibitive with such nominal drop. The pyramid pump functions beautifully for the transference. The standard hydraulic ram pump works well as long as the output is higher than the source. To use a standard ram pump, an intermediate water tower is required that is at least five times the pump’s head. (i.e. If the pump is 4’ below the pond then the water tower must be at least 20’ above the pump.) Here’s where the pyramid pump really shines. The pump requires no water tower and it is twice as efficient as a standard hydraulic ram pump. The pump is run with the well shaft valve turned off to increase pumping efficiency.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 37. The Pyramid Pump’s Special Function

(Top) A standard hydraulic ram pump does  not transfer water laterally without an intermediate water tower. (Bottom) The pyramid pump performs  lateral transference efficiently.

Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

FIGURE 38. Fluid Dynamic Pictures

A few of the hundreds of pictures taken with ink injected into the subterranean chamber model.


Great Pyramid Water Pump / Hydraulic Pulse Generator

Subterranean pump running.  Although the water surges, it has a continuous flow without help of an air compression chamber like a standard hydraulic ram pump.

Above:  Orthodox drawing of the Great Pyramid with retaining wall and causeway.  Yes, there really was a retaining wall.


The Great Pyramid of Giza Research Association (GPG-RA) is home to the majority of the alternate pyramid researchers. Visit us at: http://GizaPyramid.com

Ukranian physicists Alexander and Anatoli Golod have built 17 large pyramid models, with the largest being 44 meters high. Within these structures, they have carried out extensive testing on some of the possible shape effects of pyramid structures. If they are correct, it is dramatic.

The Golod’s work can be viewed at: http://GizaPyramid.com/Russian/Research.htm

Chris Dunn delves extensively into advanced machining in ancient Egypt. In his book, and at his internet site, he shows numerous examples of high precision artifacts. Some of the greatest examples are the large granite boxes (13’-long x 7-½’-wide x 11’-high, 200,000 lbs.) of the Serapeum. Supposedly from a time when only copper tools existed, these granite boxes have perfectly straight sides (<0.0002” error) and perfect 90 degree corners.

For further pictures and details, please visit Chris’ site: http://GizaPower.com/Precision.htm

Nigel Skinner-Simpson has an excellent internet regarding the “water shaft” located under the middle pyramid’s causeway: http://towers-online.co.uk/pages/shaftos1.htm

Hydraulic ram pumps were invented in the 1700’s and are very simple in design. A great explanation of hydraulic ram: http://www.animatedsoftware.com/pumpglos/ram_pump.htm

Scott Lee, a hydraulic ram pump designer, shared his 20+ years of experience with the basic hydraulic ram pump. Working extensively with alternate energy solutions, Scott’s work can be viewed at:http://hometown.aol.com/slee529282/ram.htm

Robert Patterson, a reverse engineering specialist, helped the project by sharing his vision for determining fluid dynamics within the subterranean chamber.

Edward Kunkel’s book has been republished by The Pharaoh’s Pump Foundation. The founder, Steven Myers, has been working on a model of Kunkel’s vision since 1999. He’s ambitiously working on the vacuum assisted pump.  Anxiously waiting to see it run in 2008. Steven has a really nice section discussing the possibility that the pyramid was built with water locks.  Steven’s work can be viewed at: http://ThePump.org




Edward Kunkel, The Pharaoh’s Pump

Chris Dunn, The Giza Power Plant

Stephen Mehler, The Land of Osiris

John DeSalvo, Ph.D., The Complete Pyramid Sourcebook

Peter Tompkins, The Secrets of the Great Pyramid

Mark Lehner, The Complete Pyramids

Richard Noone, 5/5/2000

Edgar Brothers, Great Pyramid Passages and Chambers

Flinders Petrie, The Pyramids and Temples of Gizeh, 1883

Phone conversation with myself, John Reid and Laura Lee, December 2002

Michael Lindeburg, P.E., Mechanical Engineering Review Manual, 7th edition

Edgar Evans Cayce, Gail Cayce Schwartzer, Douglas G. Richards, Mysteries of Atlantis Revisited, 145-146

Nigel Skinner-Simpson: http://towers-online.co.uk/pages/shaftos1.htm

Laura Lee, interview with myself, Stephen Mehler, and Chris Dunn, July 23, 2002. http://LauraLee.com

Patrick Flanagan, M.D., Ph.D., Pyramid Power

Rick Howard GPG-RA article. http://GizaPyramid.com

William Kapsaris GPG-RA article. http://GizaPyramid.com

Alexander & Anatoli Golod GPG-RA article. http://GizaPyramid.com

Volodymyr Krasnoholvets, Dr., GPG-RA article. http://GizaPyramid.com

Kirti Betai, M.D., Ph.D., GPG-RA article. http://GizaPyramid.com


For my family who made all this possible - This couldn’t have been done without the support.

Special thanks to the Grand Unifier, Dr. John DeSalvo, for his creation: the GPG-RA


      Stephen Mehler and myself - Boulder, Colorado - October 2003                  Chris Dunn and myself - Bellingham, Washington - November 2005

"You have made a believer of me, thanks for all your hard work"  -  Chris Dunn

In memory of Rudy and Dorian: 9/97 - 1/7/03


FIGURE 39. Research Assistants and perpetual supporters.

(Left) Rudy, the Rottweiler, checks current valve configuration of pump. (Middle) Dorian, the Giant Schnauzer, checks for freeze damage after a snow storm. (Right) While taking pictures of subterranean chamber flows, Dorian makes sure the tripod is stable. Their lives were cut short on January 7, 2003 in a house fire.


The waterman glyph means “one who knows the secrets of the waters”. The glyph is associated with the energy of the pyramids.

Waterman courtesy Stephen Mehler and Abd’El Hakim.

Questions and comments can be sent to This email address is being protected from spambots. You need JavaScript enabled to view it.

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©2000, 2001, 2002, 2003, 2004, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2008 Copyrighted by John Cadman. All rights reserved. Reproduction prohibited without written consent.

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August 7, 2005:  The following article and invention are discovered:

I was doing a Google search for "hydraulic pulse generator".  This is a descriptive phrase that I had coined to describe the Giza subterranean machine.  Until this time, I had no idea that they actually existed.  They are used for tunneling and, more impotantly, creating seismic waves.  The following is an article from The American Society of Mechanical Engineers.

Developing a hydraulic pulse generator.

Mechanical Engineering-CIME; 5/1/1994; Kolle, Jack J.

Hydraulic pulse generators (HPG) have a number of useful applications, including fracturing rock, decontaminating nuclear facilities and generating seismic waves. The pulse generation technique is safe because the design of HPG equipment includes a safety factor that can be changed according to the type of energy/weight ratios needed. The technique is also reliable and efficient.

A compressed-water hydraulic pulse generator has been developed for applications requiring a high-energy pulse of water. The pressures and loading rates generated by discharge through a nozzle fitted into a borehole are comparable to a gunpowder blast and result in multiple fractures and fragmentations of hard rock.

THE HYDRAULIC PULSE GENERATOR (HPG) was developed as a way of fragmenting and excavating hard rock [1]. This device uses the energy stored in a water-filled accumulator to generate an ultrahigh-pressure (300- to 400-MPa) water pulse through a large 10- to 25-millimeter-diameter discharge valve. The energy of this pulse can be used to fracture rock or other materials, to drive a projectile, or to generate seismic waves (see Figure 1).


HPG systems built to date have used water as a working fluid. At ultrahigh pressures water is a compressible fluid. Figure 2 shows the compression of water based on data on water compression at ultrahigh pressure from Bridgman [2]. Water compression data may be fit by an equation of the following form:

(1) V/[V.sub.o]= [(1+P/[P.sub.c]).sup.c] where [V.sub.o] is the volume of a vessel filled with water at pressure P, V is the decompressed water volume, and [P.sub.c] and c are empirical constants. The best fit to Bridgman's data is given by [P.sub.c] = 370 MPa and c=0.1671. The energy stored in a water-filled accumulator with volume [V.sub.o] can be found by integrating the work of compression

(2) [Mathematical Expression Omitted] which leads to

(3) [Mathematical Expression Omitted]

In practice there is an upper limit on the operating pressure of accumulators, which is dictated by the materials used in their construction and safety considerations. As the operating pressure increases, the pressure vessel wall thickness must also increase. This means that for a given external vessel dimension, the internal volume decreases. The safety factor is defined as the ratio between operating pressure and the pressure at which yield begins on the inside surface of the vessel.

A safety factor of 2.5 has been used in the design of HPGs that will be used in manned areas (the actual safety factor is considerably higher since yield on the inner diameter of a thick-walled ductile steel pressure vessel does not lead to catastrophic failure). Lower safety factors can be used for remote applications where higher energy/weight ratios are desired.

The HPG discharges through a fast-opening valve contained within the pressure vessel. Initial tests on pulse generation used a rupture disk to release the pressure. A pilot-operated ball valve was then developed and later modified to a poppet design [3], as shown in Figure 3. During charging, an orifice maintains a positive pressure differential between the valve inlet and the pressure vessel. This causes the poppet to seat and seal the pressure vessel. For discharge, a two-way servo-valve on the inlet line to the HPG is activated to vent the inlet line. This generates a pressure imbalance that lifts the poppet from its seat, discharging the HPG.

Once the poppet starts to lift, the pressure imbalance rapidly increases to a level equal to the total charge pressure; this causes the valve to open completely in a fraction of a millisecond. The servo-operated vent allows complete control over the discharge cycle using an electrical trigger. If the valve fails to open for any reason, the internal pressure will slowly discharge though the inlet orifice and vent valve.

Impulsive energies of up to 250 kJ have been generated by the HPG systems discussed in the following sections. The low compressibility of water means little heat is generated; the compression/discharge cycle is nearly adiabatic, and efficiency is almost 100 percent. Consistent repeated pulses may be generated at a cycle rate of 1 Hz with conventional ultrahigh-pressure power. The system may also be charged using a low-cost air-driven pump if rapid cycle time is not a consideration. The discharge valve used on the HPG has only a single moving part, and the first prototype has been discharged thousands of times without significant wear

The above oil drilling technology is analogous to the Great Pyramid system.  A hydraulic pulse emanates from a source and is sent through a pipe.  When this pulse hits the rock at the end of the pipe, a shock wave (compression wave) is sent through the rock.  "Look ahead" drilling.  New  technology developed independently that is perfectly analogous to ancient technology.


Although explosive blasting is the most efficient means of excavating hard rock, the use of explosives has a number of drawbacks. Explosive excavation is a cyclic process in which blast holes are drilled, the holes are loaded with explosive charges, the area is evacuated, explosives are detonated, the opening is ventilated, and the broken rock is removed.

Chemical explosives generate toxic gas by-products that require extensive ventilation during underground tunneling or mining. In the deep-level gold mines of South Africa, the drill and blast cycle takes 24 hours, with much of the time devoted to ventilation and personnel transport. Explosives have been banned from some urban areas because of vibration damage induced during the nearly simultaneous detonation of explosive charges required by the drill and blast operation. Explosives also present a safety hazard during storage and use. These considerations have led to an interest in developing nonexplosive continuous excavation techniques suitable for hard rock [4].

The first HPG was designed for rock fragmentation and excavation [1]. In this application, the impulse pressure is directed into a discharge nozzle that is fitted into a borehole drilled in the rock. Figure 4 shows the pressure profile that results during discharge of a 30-kJ/300-MPa impulse into a 25-millimeter-diameter test chamber. The discharge nozzle for this test had a diameter of 23 millimeters and a length of 200 millimeters. The rise time and pulse duration shown here are comparable to that of a propellant charge, such as gunpowder, in a tamped hole.

The useful energy, or blasting strength value (BSV), of high explosives is about 1500 kJ/kg [5]. A 20-liter HPG at a pressure of 300 MPa releases 300 kJ of energy or the equivalent of 0.2 kilogram of high explosive. The following relationship is used to estimate the amount of rock that may be blasted from bench using a given weight, [q.sub.b], of high explosive [6]:

(4) [q.sub.b] = 1.45[B.sup.3]([C.sub.b]+07/B) where [C.sub.b] = 0.35 kg/[m.sup.3] and B is the height and burden of a bench. The equivalent hydraulic pulse energy can be found from W = [q.sub.b] BSV. The volume of rock removed in this simple bench blast geometry is [B.sup.3]. A 250-kJ HPG system should be able to blast a rock burden of 0.6 meter, which amounts to about a metric ton of rock.

Figure 5 shows an HPG mounted on a roadheader. This system was used to excavate granite with a compressive strength of 150 MPa. These tests demonstrated the rock fragmentation and excavation capabilities of the HPG. The HPG used had a discharge energy of 150 kJ and a valve diameter of 25 millimeters. A 250-kJ system with a 25-millimeter-diameter discharge valve has now been built (Figure 1) and is undergoing testing for use in a deep-level gold mine.


The HPG has also found a number of applications in the decontamination and decommissioning of nuclear facilities. These applications involve situations in which a mass of contaminated material must be fragmented to allow removal from a facility.

Our first system was designed to fit into the reactor vessel at Three Mile Island in Pennsylvania. The meltdown at this facility in 1979 resulted in a mass of ceramic-like material pooled in the bottom of the reactor vessel. An HPG system was designed to enter the reactor and break up the material. A 125-millimeter diameter 40-kJ system was fabricated and tested in a simulated reactor pool.

A second system has been designed for use in fragmenting and dislodging solid masses of radioactive salts that have formed in liquid waste storage tanks at the Hanford Nuclear Reservation in Washington [7]. The salts have surprisingly high strength and must be dislodged from the single-shell wall of the tank and internal tubing without damage. The application requires deployment of the HPG from a robotic arm so that the reaction forces must be minimized. Finally, the amount of water discharged into the tank must be minimized, since this increases the volume of radioactive material that must be handled.

For this application, the HPG end effector and recoil mount are 1 meter long and weigh 50 kilograms. The HPG has a discharge energy of 22 kJ at 345 MPa through an 11-millimeter discharge valve. The reaction load during discharge was observed to be 1300 N. At 345 MPa the system was quite effective at fragmenting a salt-cake simulant.


A typical 250-kJ HPG discharge requires approximately 100 milliseconds, which corresponds to a power of 2.5 megawatts. This level of impulsive mechanical power may be applied to a variety of industrial and testing situations. A 42-kJ HPG has been used to power a mechanical impact test system for projectiles prior to launch at a hypervelocity test range at Arnold Engineering Development Test Center at the Arnold Air Force Base in Tennessee [8].

A two-stage light-gas gun (G-range) is used to launch 63.5-millimeter-diameter projectiles at velocities up to 6 km/s. During the launch, the projectiles are subjected to base pressure spikes of up to 300 MPa. Structural failure of the projectile during launch can cause significant damage to the launcher and range track.

An impact tester, shown in Figure 6, has been built to simulate the duration and magnitude of base pressure spikes that occur during launch. This allows proof testing of projectile designs before launch. The projectiles are loaded into a launch tube simulator that incorporates a water-filled cavity at the projectile base. A 0.3-kilogram aluminum impactor cylinder is accelerated using the HPG to velocities up to 200 m/s. The cylinder impacts the water cavity, generating a pressure spike with a profile controlled by the elastic properties and dimensions of the impactor. The pressure spike is monitored with a pressure transducer.

The HPG could also be used as a highly efficient pump stage in a two-stage light-gas gun for launching hypervelocity projectiles, as shown in Figure 7. The compressed water would be used to pump a volume of light gas; typically hydrogen or helium would be used because they have high acoustic velocities. A pressure-release diaphragm then releases, allowing the gas to drive a projectile to hyper velocities. Energy storage in compressed water is nearly adiabatic because of the low compressibility of water; the energy transfer in the gas is also adiabatic because of the speed at which the process takes place. It is thus possible to design a highly efficient launcher that transfers almost all of the energy stored in the water to the projectile. The energy discharged by a 500-kJ HPG is equivalent to the kinetic energy of a 10-gram projectile that is moving at a velocity of 11 km/s.


The HPG may also be used to generate impulsive pressures in boreholes for rock mechanics and seismic studies. A 42-kJ HPG has been used to generate intense pressure pulses in 38-millimeter boreholes in granite, limestone, and concrete in a study of non-linear attenuation of stress waves [9]. This work is directed toward modeling the coupling of nuclear explosions to teleseismic radiation. In the experimental setup, the HPG is discharged into a shallow borehole in rock while the borehole pressure and ground acceleration at a small standoff are observed. Impulse pressure profiles in the three materials and the ground velocity spectrum at a standoff of 0.4 meter show that the source produces a significant signal at frequencies greater than 1 kHz.

The HPG provides a compact source of mechanical energy that may be used in a borehole for crosswell seismic work. An HPG borehole source can be configured to generate compressional and shear wave energy. Existing electromechanical borehole seismic sources are limited in energy output, while explosive sources are poorly characterized. The HPG source offers high energy at frequencies up to 1 kHz. The source magnitude and spectrum may be characterized with a pressure transducer. A well-characterized source may be used to log formation attenuation properties, which are an important indicator of the presence and mobility of formation fluids. In addition, a variable-amplitude source can be used to characterize the inelastic mechanical properties of the formation. In this application, the attenuation of the signal is monitored as the source amplitude increases. The onset of nonlinear attenuation can provide an indication of the elastic limit of the formation.

The development of a hydraulic pulse generator using compressed water has led to a number of applications that require a source of impulsive mechanical power. The hydraulic pulse generator has been demonstrated to be an effective means of fragmenting rock and other hard materials, including ceramics and saltcake.

The pulse generation technique is compact, efficient, safe, and reliable. Applications currently under development include nonexplosive mining in deep-level gold mines, nonexplosive tunneling in urban areas, material removal in contaminated nuclear waste tanks, nonexplosive demolition of contaminated material, generation of compression and shear wave energy in boreholes, in situ rock mechanics testing, impact testing, materials processing, and hypervelocity projectile launch.



[1.] Kolle, J.J., and Fort, J.A., 1988, "Application of Dynamic Rock Fracture Mechanics to Non-Explosive Excavation," in Key Question in Rock Mechanics: Proceedings of the 29th U.S. Symposium, P.A. Cundall et al., Eds., A.A. Balkema, Rotterdam, pages 571-578. [2.] Bridgman, P.W., 1911, "Water, in the Liquid and Five Solid Forms, Under Pressure," in Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Vol.47, pages 441-558. [3.] Kolle, J.J., and Monserud, D.O., 1991, "Apparatus for Rapidly Generating Pressure Pulses for Demolition of Rock Having Reduced Pressure Head Loss and Component Wear," U.S. Patent No.5,000,516. [4.] Haase, H.H., and Pickering, R.G.B., "Non-Explosive Mining: An Untapped Potential for the South African Gold-Mining Industry," Journal of the south African Institute of Mining Metal, Vol.91, pages 381-388. [5.] Lownds, C.M., 1986, "The Strength of Explosives," The Planning and Operation of Open-Pit and Strip Mines J.P. Deetlets, Ed., SAIMM, Johannesburg, South Africa, pages 151-159. [6.] Johanson, C.H., and Persson, P.A., 1970, Detonics of High Explosives, Academic Press, London. [7.] Monserud, D.O., and Lilley, R.C, 1992, "Hydraulic End Effector Inspection and Test Results," prepared for Lawrence Livermore National Laboratories under Contract No.B199069, Quest Technical Communication No.355. [8.] Kolle, J.J., 1991a, "Impact Tester for Hypervelocity Projectiles," prepared for Arnold Engineering Development Center, Arnold AFB, Tenn., under Contract No.F40600-91-C-0009, Quest Technical Report No.549. [9.] Kolle, J.J., 1991b, "Observations of Transition Level Stress Wave Attenuation Using aHydraulic Impulse Source," prepared for Defense Advanced Projects Agency under Contract No.DAAH01-90-C-0698, Quest Technical Report No.517.


This article is excerpted from the Proceedings of the Seventh American Water Jet Conference, held in August 1993 in Seattle, with the permission of the Water Jet Technology Association.

COPYRIGHT 1994 American Society of Mechanical Engineers


Edward Kunkel's design for complete pyramid vaccum assisted pump



Edward Kunkels' proposed use of whole pyramid as a pump.  The differences between his patent and mine are readily evident.  Although we disagree about the majority of the function of the layout, we do agree that water went down the descending passage.  This graphic from www.surf.to/ppf representing Kunkel's vision.

Edward Kunkel's design for subterranean section ram pump

Edward Kunkels' proposed use of the subterranean section being used as a hydraulic ram pump.  He never made a working model of this layout.  I tried it, and it didn't work for me.  We disagree on the wastegate line and the output line.  It also runs much better without any air in the subterranean chamber.  This graphic came fom www.surf.to/ppf to represent Kunkel's vision.

Edward Kunkel came up with idea of the pump as a means to elevate the building blocks.  By using barge systems and water locks, the heaviest of stones could have easily been elevated to build the pyramid.  I have no objections to his construction theory.

Kunkel's patent.  Quite an invention.  Does it match the physical evidence?  Follow his research being demonstrated at ThePump.org

Miscellaneous information

Many modern day physicists and engineers view the Great Pyramid as a machine. They show physical evidence to reinforce their claim:The shape has been shown to have dramatic energizing effects. An example being water does not freeze at - 40° C. within a pyramid structure.18

The King‘s chamber has been expanded and the granite ceiling beams are fractured due to some type of massive internal explosion.2

The granite coffer has changed from pink to brown due to high temperatures.2

The granite coffer and many remnants around the Giza plateau had been machined with some type of triple axis mill, an advanced machine.2

Acoustic engineers are demonstrating that the King‘s chamber and the coffer are actually tuned to resonate at a specific frequency - 440Hz.2,3,10

The Queen‘s chamber had an inch of salt encrustation on the walls and ceiling possibly due to a chemical reactions within the room.2

Many mathematicians embrace the building. They show that it incorporates numerous advanced mathematical relations within its design:

The perimeter is equal to a half minute of equatorial longitude or 1/43,2000 earth’s circumference. The height is 1/43,200 earth’s polar radius.2 Did they know the Earth’s circumference?

The base of natural logarithms, e, is incorporated in the primary angles.16 Natural logarithms weren’t even discovered until the 1700’s by Euler. How did they know this number?

The number pi is found when taking perimeter and dividing by 2 times height.2

Our present day inch based directly on the pyramid inch, and is only 0.001” different.2

Many architects marvel at the size and precision of the building:

The Great Pyramid is the largest and most accurately constructed building in the world, ever.2

The building is almost perfectly aligned to the polar coordinates, built to within 3 arc minutes from perfection.5

The shear volume of blocks, estimated at 2,300,000 blocks, would require 33 quarries to work 24 hours a day for 27 years using modern machines.7

The five layers of granite beams of the King’s chamber ceiling weigh 70 tons each.2

The 13 acre base is level to within ¾”.5

The 756’ sides are equal to +/- 3”, which is far more accurate than modern building standards.5 Did they really use string to make these measurements?

The 330’ descending passage is straight to within ¼ inch for the entire length. One 90’ stretch is straight to within 1/10 inch.5

The casing stones are fit together with an accuracy of +/- 0.005”.5 Did they form these blocks with copper chisels and beating stones?

The Mystery schools (Masons, Rosicruscians, Templars, etc.) view the building as a sonic initiation machine that leads to higher knowledge.7 The Masons put the Great Pyramid on the back of the U.S. one dollar bill.

 Bobby Schmidt wrote telling of observing "two symmetrical tunnels leading from the base of the Pyramid attributed to Chefron had been excavated. What was very intriguing about these two tunnels was the fact that they were leading down the hill toward the old shoreline of the River Nile, possibly at the Sphinx Temples. They were constructed from squared stone, completely enclosed (one large roof part had been removed so to allow for peering into the tunnel itself), and they ran in what appeared to be very straight parallel lines toward the ancient shoreline. What amazed me even more was that the tunnels were completely surrounded by at least a five foot thick layer of some sort of fuel such as coal or something. It was very evident that it had been burning at an incredible temperature before, and it now looked like volcanic rock." (Approximately 5' wide by 6' deep)

The Smokestacks